Social Media Platforms by Monthly Active Users (Graphic) – 2015 Update

April 8, 2015 Leave a comment

Every so often I’ll try to take the temperature of the social media world and try to dig up the latest numbers for how many monthly active users (MAUs) are on the dominant social media platforms. Here’s the latest result (done on 1/31/2015).

Social Media Platforms by Monthly Active Users 2015 Graphic

Social Media Platforms by Monthly Active Users Graphic

Here’s a version with a transparent background in case you’d like to use it for slideware.

Some notes:

  • This measure isn’t entirely scientific; it’s based on reports on blogs and in the news media. I believe in all cases the numbers are self-reported – so take them with a grain of salt (I’m not aware of any sort of independent body that actually goes in to look at the data and verify any of these numbers). Given that many of these companies are publicly-traded, one can easily imagine the temptation to tweak the numbers to eke out a positive quarter.
  • For these graphics, I focus primarily on platforms that businesses are currently using. There are some new additions in this arena as companies and organizations are dipping their toes in (chiefly WhatsApp and Snapchat).
  • In some cases it’s difficult to get the latest numbers (I suspect because the platforms are experiencing stagnant or declining use) so I’ve pushed those platforms off the main chart and tagged them with “unknown.” Foursquare, for example, split itself into two separate platforms (Foursquare – offering Yelp-like reviews, and Swarm – retaining the “check-in” feature of Foursquare) and the company doesn’t discuss their user base except to say that they have 55M users which is too vague.
  • Though they boast 347M “total users,” Linkedin is likely flat in MAU growth; the 187M users number comes from February of 2014. Linkedin is a platform that people tend to use the “Ronco Oven” model for use: “set it and forget it” (creating a profile and then neglecting to interact or update it until they’re searching for a new job).
  • You can find the previous version of this graphic (from 2014) here.

Why the Lost Finale Sucked a Rancid Tub of Expired Dharma Ranch Dressing

April 8, 2015 Leave a comment

Derek DeVries:

Happy Lost Day Everyone! Here’s my (oddly-popular) review of the Lost series finale from 2010. Spoiler alert, obvs.

Originally posted on Derek DeVries - Imprudent Loquaciousness:

[Update: If you haven’t seen this video, you need to check it out (I’m not the only one that feels this way).]

I was really disappointed by the Lost season finale.

From Season 2 of Lost: a Screen Capture of the Hydra Logo on the Tail of a Shark Swimming Past the Camera

From the start, Lost thrived on setting up curious questions and then answering them in a way that only posed more questions. Not only was that the theme for the show – but the entire social media-driven marketing apparatus around the show catered to that aspect:

  • the creators set up fake show-related websites and 800 numbers (grabbed by astute fans who analyzed screen captures from the show that flashed by business cards or papers tacked to walls) with curious pre-recorded messages – all of which were part of two separate alternate reality games (The Lost Experience and Find 815).
  • the network’s website for the show (laden with hidden multimedia content) was filled with seething, writhing fan…

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What Law Enforcement can Learn From the Reaction to an Amber Alert

March 31, 2015 1 comment

Screen Capture of the 3/28 Amber Alert

On Saturday, March 28, 2015 around 5:30 a.m., Michigan residents were jolted awake to an ominous alert on their mobile phones. The warning sounded like the sort of alarm one hears at the end of a James Bond movie, as the arch-villain’s lair is about to collapse on the minions running frantically in the background as 007 and his female counterpart zipline to safety.

A six-year-old child was abducted by her father from a small town near Flint, Michigan. The Michigan State Police (MSP) feared she was in immediate physical danger and had a solid lead on her abductor, so they made the decision to send an immediate message using the Wireless Emergency Alerts program which can deliver messages to any mobile phones in a geographic area. This system is different from text messages (it receives priority over other data sent to phones so that it can go out more swiftly).

What I’ve learned from my years in public relations and the crises I’ve worked on is that nothing teaches you more about crisis communications than an actual crisis event. This Amber Alert was no different – and here are some of the insights I’ve gathered:

Citizens are Customers First

Customers have come to expect options and transparency from every brand they interact with – and the Michigan State Police brand is no different. While it would be great if everyone treated the loss of sleep caused by the Amber Alert as a minor sacrifice all citizens should make for the safety of the whole – not everyone shares that viewpoint and they have the power to opt out of these warnings. As a result of that choice the citizen-consumer has, law enforcement needs to think about citizens more as consumers and realize that they have an obligation to persuade (even sell) them on the benefits of opting in to the alerts.

Unfortunately the tone thus far from the MSP has come off as insensitive to the “customers” that were startled awake by the alert. To wit: “The Michigan State Police’s AMBER Alert coordinator told 24 Hour News 8 Monday she doesn’t regret sending out a loud, early morning text alert over the weekend and that she would do it again if it would help a child.”

This leads to another insight…

Framing the Message is More Important Than You Think

Instead of adopting a defensive stance, this Amber Alert could have been treated as a heartwarming and concrete example of the effectiveness and importance of the alert system. It’s an opportunity to position the role of everyone who received the alert (to make them more inclined to remain opted-in): selfless heroes whose noble sacrifice helped return a child in danger to her home. Sure it’s hyperbolic – but it employs a tried-and-true customer service tactic: thanking upset customers changes the trajectory of an interaction by helping disarm anger.

Your Audience is Larger Than You Think

In talking to the Grand Rapids news media, I found that the MSP were treating this case as a local story in Flint and primarily giving interviews and comments to the reporters there. Yet the alert went out state-wide. That means it’s a local story in EVERY locality. The MSP should have braced for the deluge of both local and state-wide interest from the news in this story and used it as an opportunity to tell the success story of the girl’s recovery and shore up support for the Amber Alert system.

This is one of the things I love about social media monitoring in crisis situations – it can help you identify blind spots you would never have considered otherwise. Its reach and two-way nature means that you can be made aware of stakeholders, agendas, and questions you didn’t know existed.

In a Crisis, More Communication is Better

The actual text of the alert was very simple, and some recipients were confused by what it meant. Here’s what it read:

“Emergency alert

Bancroft, MI AMBER Alert: LIC/7KJC97 (MI) 2000 Teal Ford F-250 Pickup

Type: Amber Alert”

Mis-communication frequently occurs when we make assumptions about what the audience knows. For example; one Twitter user mistook the message for an alert about a stolen vehicle; since the missing child is not explicitly mentioned in the text of the alert. It assumes that everyone knows that an “Amber Alert” means a child in danger. It’s not an unreasonable mistake to make (exacerbated by the vehicle being the focus of the investigation, and not the perpetrator or victim).

The messaging protocol likely has a character limit, which is why details were so sparse (and why no information about the victim or the perpetrator was included). This is a challenge, but one that can be overcome with more communication through other channels. This leads to another important lesson…

Use Social Media Engagement to Your Advantage in a Crisis

The good thing is that after the initial alert, users (customers) took to Google and social media to find more information – which is now the standard practice for every significant event. Unfortunately they would have found little on social media to fill in the gaps in their knowledge; there were no tweets, Facebook posts, or pages on the MSP’s website with the full story. That’s a missed opportunity to both (1) empower citizens to help, and (2) explain to citizens who are upset what the justification for the intrusion was.

The good thing is that there is still an opportunity to use social media to build the credibility and trust in both the MSP and the Amber Alert system (though the window is quickly closing). Were I to advise them on next steps – here they are:

  • Respond to every user you can find on social media that tweeted or posted about the alert. There are probably a few hundred of them, so it will take an investment of time – but realize that it’s time well spent. For every user you reach, you tap into their social graph (all the people they’re connected to) which exponentially expands the reach of your message.
    • For the Positive Comments: Thank the user for helping share the information that ultimately saved this child’s life and for their continued commitment to public safety.
    • For the Negative Comments: Apologize for the intrusion, tell them the success story, and tell them you hope they’ll consider remaining opted-in to the alerts.
  • Use this case to create an informational campaign about Amber Alerts while the event is still fresh in the mind of the public. You have their attention – USE IT:
    • Speak openly and transparently about the criteria used to make the decision to issue this alert (to assuage their concerns that this will now happen every weekend).
    • Inform them about how the technology works.
    • Empower the audience by telling users can find more information about these alerts (which isn’t easy to find – it varies by carrier and by phone).
    • Show them other examples from around the country where the system has saved missing children.
    • Expand your message to talk about missing & exploited children, public safety, and any other relevant topics you’d like the public know about.

Understand Conventions

Were I to make a recommendation to authorities and wireless carriers, it would be to change the tone currently used for the Amber Alert. The particular alarm that is employed already has a clearly-defined psychological implication to the general public: immediate physical peril to oneself. It’s effective in the case of severe weather or a national emergency, but an Amber Alert doesn’t fit that convention. It’s a crisis only to the victim and their immediate family – the rest of us are spectators and only a tiny handful of people who receive the alert have relevant information to help the investigation. Something as simple as changing the tone could do wonders to temper the negative reaction to being woken from sleep to an alert.

Another convention that customers are now well-accustomed to is being able to silence all of their messages for a given period of time (such as when they are asleep or in meetings). This message broke that convention, so the anger seen on Twitter was in part about the larger issue of a loss of control. That has to be factored in to the decisions about how to communicate with the audience.

In the big picture, this is an opportunity for wireless carriers and phone makers (perhaps even app developers) to use technology to mitigate this intrusion to keep users from opting out of receiving Amber Alerts. What if, for example, users had the ability to set the alerts so that they are delayed if the phone hasn’t moved in a given period of time? (i.e. when someone is away from it, or it is sitting on a nightstand because they are sleeping) – That might entice more people to stay in the system (which is only effective if a large number of people do so).

Consider the Context

The Wireless Emergency Alerts protocol has been available to law enforcement since 2012, and this was the first time the MSP opted to use it for an Amber Alert. That lends more significance to the event than one might think. This means two important things:

  1. Any communication about the Amber Alert protocol will have been forgotten or ignored by the vast majority of people because it didn’t immediately affect them at the time (now it does – which is the most important time to communicate).
  2. This case may be your ONE AND ONLY opportunity to convince the average person to remain opted-in to the alert messages. You have to seize it.

Hopefully someone in law enforcement finds this valuable and is able to put it to use in the next event.

For what it’s worth, below is a curated list of example social media posts I gathered from the West Michigan area that illustrate the conversation that took place after the alert went out.

The Big Mistake Mark Cuban Doesn’t Know He’s Making on Social Media

December 20, 2014 Leave a comment

markcubanduh

Recently entrepreneur and noted Twitter user Mark Cuban discovered that companies are collecting data about activity of social media users, which was apparently a revelation to Inc Magazine and its readership.

In the hilarious fear-mongering advertorial, Cuban postulates that our digital histories will someday be used against us in court or for job interviews.

This is perhaps only a revelation to Cuban and Inc. The rest of the Internet-using public has been aware of this reality for more than a decade.

In fact, the well of data social media makes available to advertisers was one of the first concerns raised by observers of the then-nascent “social networking” phenomenon when it first appeared in the early 2000s. I did a quick search of databases to find early studies about this topic and to wit, this quote is from a 2005 report created by the Annenberg Public Policy Center at the University of Pennsylvania:

“Most internet-using U.S. adults are aware that companies can follow their behavior online.” (Turow et al, 2005, p. 4)

That same study went on to reference the 2002 Tom Cruise blockbuster “Minority Report” (which Cuban also references in the Inc Magazine interview).

An even older Annenberg report (from 2003) detailed the pitch of the now-defunct Gator Corporation, which embedded tracking software on social networking software services like KaZaA (remember KaZaA?):

“Let’s say you sell baby food. We know which consumers are displaying behaviors relevant to the baby food category through their online behavior. Instead of targeting primarily by demographics, you can target consumers who are showing or have shown an interest in your category. … Gator offers several vehicles to display your ad or promotional message. You decide when and how your message is displayed to consumers exhibiting a behavior in your category.” (Turow et al, 2005, p. 6)

So it’s not a revelation that algorithmic data is mined and analyzed by marketers. What I do find revelatory is that Cuban thinks he has the power to do something about it.

There are two major problems with the claims made by Cuban about two upcoming apps, Cyber Dust (a ripoff of Snapchat with a 30-second window) and Xpire:

  1. They can’t possibly hide or delete a user’s social media activity from advertisers.
  2. What a person DOESN’T do on social media can be just as valuable to marketers as what conscious actions they take.

Allow me to explain.

First, one can’t truly delete one’s social media activity to remove it from the prying eyes of marketers using it to produce an algorithmic profile.

You can delete the post from your timeline, sure, but that doesn’t actually mean it’s “deleted.” As far back as 2010, for example, it has been public knowledge that Facebook caches a server-side copy of all of your content. In order to truly delete all of your posts and photos from the prying eyes of advertisers, you would need to hack into Facebook and remove it from the inside (which would be illegal).

Moreover, even if we discount the server-side caching that takes place on social media platforms, simply viewing a social media site like Facebook creates a trail of data that feeds the digital profiles sites like Facebook build for each of us. At the most basic level, Facebook tracks what you scroll past (counted as “impressions”), the time you spend on content, and what you search for.

Apps (like Snapchat or Cuban’s “Cyber Dust”) which purport to delete content within a certain time window are fatally-flawed in concept because of the many touchpoints they have to make as they go from one user to another. If you “snap” a compromising photo, that data can be accessed at many times between Person A and Person B – here are just a few:

  • From the data cached on Person A’s phone (tracked by mobile phone carriers).
  • Intercepted between the phone and whatever Internet connectivity point is used to send the message (be it wi-fi or cellular).
  • From the server used to pass the content through to the app’s (Snapchat’s) servers.
  • From the app’s (Snapchat’s) servers.
  • From the server receiving the content from the app’s (Snapchat’s) servers.
  • From the data cached on Person B’s phone (or by Person B if they decide to take a screen capture of the photo and publish it to the web, which has been the downfall of several Snapchat users recently).

Further, the above scenario assumes you don’t have one app integrated with another (which adds an additional layer of touchpoints upon which this data can reside).

Second, the actions you DON’T take can be just as valuable to marketers as the actions you DO take. This reality plays out in a couple of different ways:

Facebook Caches Unposted Data: In 2013, the public became aware that Facebook tracks and saves posts that users delete at the last minute without posting. Re-read that sentence. Facebook is caching the keystrokes you enter – even if you decide not to publish them.

That data, analyzed by a PhD student from Carnegie Mellon University and a Facebook researcher, was used to produce a report revealed at the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. Here’s one of the key findings:

“Our results indicate that 71% of users exhibited some level of last-minute self-censorship in the time period, and provide specific evidence supporting the theory that a user’s “perceived audience” lies at the heart of the issue: posts are censored more frequently than comments, with status updates and posts directed at groups censored most frequently of all sharing use cases investigated.” (Das and Kramer, 2013, p. 1)

“Escher Fish Theory”: I’m loathe to coin a term, but there isn’t really an existing shorthand (that I’m aware of) to describe the value of observing the gaps in our social graphs. For example, who we’re not connected to (interests we don’t have, posts we don’t like, updates we don’t comment on) can be a valuable insight now that we have the computing power to crunch those petabytes of data. The tessellations of M.C. Escher provides a good illustration of this concept (that recognizable patterns exist in between other patterns):

M. C. Escher Tessellation

The only way to stop social media platforms from gathering this data would be to try to clog the datastream with phony likes, shares and comments.

Cuban’s premise is flawed for another reason – namely the idea that out-of-context messages will be used to incriminate us. This is pointedly absurd because the same systems that cache all of this data track iterations of that data, which would provide exculpatory evidence in the event someone were to modify them to distort what we posted.

Even if we were to assume that Cuban’s apps worked as intended (they won’t) they could conceivably produce the opposite of their intended result. A social media user with a completely sanitized history could actually create suspicion. A benign and mundane history of digital activity draws less attention than a blank page.

Our privacy is certainly going through dramatic changes – and so are our notions of privacy. The reason social media platforms continue to grow in both the number of monthly active users and the volume of content those users create is that they provide a benefit that transcends the loss of privacy we’re experiencing. No one has a comprehensive solution of how to balance privacy and the utility derived from transparency, least of all Mark Cuban.

Sources:

Das, S., & Kramer, A. (2013). Self-Censorship on Facebook. In Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1r9EZ6A

Turow, J. (2003). Americans & Online Privacy: The System is Broken. In Annenberg Public Policy Center. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1HfZOPV

Turow, J., Feldman, L., & Meltzer, K. (2005). Open to Exploitation: American Shoppers Online and Offline . In Annenberg Public Policy Center. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1r9Et8M

A Guide for White People: Should I Wear Blackface for Halloween?

October 27, 2014 Leave a comment

Without fail, photos emerge every Halloween of caucasian partygoers in blackface. To help mitigate the damage this moronic ritual causes both to cultural relations in the US and the personal reputations of the people who inexplicably think it’s a good idea, I’ve put together this handy decision tree to advise my fellow crackers on the prudent course of action for this year’s costuming.

Guide: Should I Dress in Blackface for Halloween?

Why the Race of the Public Relations Firm Representing Ferguson Matters

August 21, 2014 Leave a comment

Ferguson PR Crisis and Diversity

By now you’re likely aware of the conflict erupting in Ferguson, MO resulting from the shooting death of an unarmed black man named Michael Brown. The city has done an abysmal job responding to the situation overall (including from a public relations perspective), highlighted most recently by the hiring of an all-white public relations firm to handle the crushing national media response to the race-motivated crisis.

The perception problem created by the hiring of an all-white PR firm was further escalated when the firm failed to immediately respond to critics via social media after the announcement went public. In its defense, Common Ground has since partnered with a minority-owned firm (The Devin James Group) to complement its capabilities. We’re reminded again that a few hours is a lifetime in the age of social media.

Some have defended the decision, arguing that it’s racist to consider the racial makeup of the PR firm hired to assist with this crisis. They are wrong and here’s why:

It’s not the PR firm’s fault, but we should all care that the firm is all white because it’s another reminder (like the Ferguson crisis) that minorities continue to be underrepresented in positions of leadership across the US.

The city has defended its hiring of Common Ground PR on the basis that the scope of the firm’s work is to assist the city’s internal PR staff in responding to the deluge of national media requests that have come in – not to rebuild the city’s relationship with the minority communities. That’s a fair point – but it further reveals the extent to which racism is systemically integrated into American life; the vast majority of the national media are white and can be served by an all-white PR firm.

The origins of this tragedy are at least in part due to the fact that the Ferguson police department is 92 percent white, policing a population that is 67 percent black. The PR firm should have known from the start that the racial composition of their employees was going to be an issue – because the PR industry as a whole is well aware of the diversity problems across the US (and within our own profession – nearly 70 percent of PR practitioners are white). A PR firm dropped into this situation should have first prepared to tout its experience with (and connections to) the African American community even if they weren’t necessarily relevant to the work performed. Moreover, it should be aware that because the PR industry has championed diversity as an issue – it is held to a higher standard when it comes to internalizing diversity.

Experience matters, which is why all of us list it on our resumes – and why PR firms list it (as Common Ground does) on their websites. Unfortunately I see nothing on the firm’s website that would hint at experience working with the African American community, nor relationships therein (not on their Crisis Communications page, nor in their Accolades page, nor their Partners/Memberships page, nor listed among the causes they support on the “Giving Back” page). They absolutely may have it – but the only indicator we’re left with to judge them on their expertise with diversity is the racial makeup of their employees.

Understanding your audiences is one of the most basic components of public relations. It’s well-known in public relations (but rarely discussed) that to work with minority audiences, you need to have minority representation within your organization – it’s an important indicator that you’ve internalized the importance of diversity. That sounds racist, but it’s not – it’s a response to the legacy of racism which excluded minorities from professional positions (which is why they’re still underrepresented today).

That legacy of exclusion is why there are separate professional groups and news outlets for minorities today. The dominant white culture excluded minority professionals and failed to cover news in minority communities – so they had to create their own.

Here’s a thought exercise: if you had to reach a majority white audience, would you feel that you could be best represented by an all-black PR firm? How about your C-Suite? – You’re lying if you say yes. Yet we expect the opposite to be true for Ferguson.

What’s “racist” is pretending that race doesn’t matter – it does.

Mother of Dragons. Breaker of Chains. Master of PR.

June 8, 2014 Leave a comment

Mother of Dragons, Breaker of Chains, Master of PR

[Warning: Spoilers. Obvi.]

One of the most dynamic and compelling characters in the “Game of Thrones” universe created by George R.R. Martin is Daenerys Targaryen. Born in exile after her father Aerys II was killed as Robert Baratheon assumed the throne of the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros (the mythical world in which GOT takes place), she

She may not carry a smartphone or an insulated Starbucks mug, but Dany has been teaching a master class in public relations over the past few seasons. Here’s what she’s reminded us so far:

Never Forget Who You Are

Throughout the series, Danaerys recalls the strength of her birthright as a Targaryen to forge on against adversity. She trusts her heritage when she sets herself and her stone dragon eggs ablaze, and is rewarded when she emerges unscathed (though covered in soot like a Looney Toons character after an explosion) with her three dragons freed from their shells.

Play to Your Strengths

One advantage frequently used by Daenerys is her underestimation by her adversaries. When securing the army of the Unsullied (slaves trained in combat from birth) in Astapor, she allows their master Kraznys mo Nakloz to assume she does not understand Valyrien (an ancient language of Westeros) because she is Dothraki. While she barters with him for the slave army, he hurls a number of insults at her in Low Valyrian knowing his slave translator will clean up what he has said in the Common Tongue for his prospective customer. In theatrical fashion, she later reveals that she has understood every insult he’s made and orders her dragon to burn him alive in front of all – reminding all of the peril of underestimation (and securing the respect of her new army of freed slaves).

Understand Your Stakeholders

The portrayal of Daenerys in Game of Thrones is one of a woman who spends a great deal of time getting to know the people around her on the show. Like most good leaders, she spends more time listening than she does talking. Her ability to learn and embrace the culture of the Dothraki is crucial to her rise to power. Unlike many who sit on thrones elsewhere in Westeros, she walks among her people without fear – inspiring loyalty and admiration.

Unlike the other rulers of Westeros, Dany takes an interest in her subjects – investing to learn their cultures, motivations, and needs. The latest season contained a scene in which she heard and responded to the grievances of her newly-conquered subjects and responded generously to their petitions.

When she fails, she takes each misstep as an opportunity to learn something never to repeat (like when her misplaced trust in “the Thirteen” in Qarth results in the death of her men at the hands of the warlocks of the city). She uses her wit and presence to win the support of the mercenary army “the Second Sons,” by impressing Daario Naharis who rejects his fellow sellswords’ demands to assassinate her and beheads them instead as an act of fealty to Daenerys.

Wield the Power of Imagery

It’s hard to top the visual of Daenerys Targaryen emerging from a bath of flames on a funeral pyre to become the “Mother of Dragons.” This sets the stage for a series of stunning visuals that mark Dany’s rise to power, from the incineration of the House of the Undying to the incineration of Kraznys mo Nakloz, owner of the army of the Unsullied (the Mother of Dragons does a lot of incinerating). Nakloz’s death is particularly instructive.

One of the best uses of imagery comes when Daenerys and her armies begin their seige of the city of Meereen. In a dramatic appeal to the slaves of the city to take up arms against their masters, Daenerys orders catapaults to fling the broken chains and yokes of the other slaves she has freed over the citys’ walls. As the slaves pick up the broken symbols of subjugation, both they and their dramatically-outnumbered masters realize perception is the only thing keeping them enslaved.

Women: Stand Strong in a Male-Dominated World

Dany is the lone female contender for the throne of Westeros, a world which mirrors the patriarchal bend of ours. Public Relations is unique among other professions in that it is populated largely by women (by some studies, a ratio as high as 75-85 percent). The respect she commands and influence she exerts reminds me of many of the women in the world of PR.

Forced into an arranged marriage with Khal Drogo (a warlord who commands 40,000 riders of a race called the Dothraki) to serve her brother Viserys’ desire to raise an army to reconquer the Iron Throne for House Targaryen, Dany wills herself to be respected as an equal by her new husband.  She endures abuse, rape, and both physical and psychological violence to overcome the subjugation of her cruel brother and the circumstances of her early life in exile. She asserts an equal status to her husband and eventually takes over the leadership of his tribe when he falls ill and dies.

In point of fact, the fantasy world created by Martin has been the subject of analysis by gender studies academics because it’s strong female characters (like Cersei Lannister, Catelyn and Arya Stark, Olenna and Magaery Tyrell, Brienne of Tarth, Ygritte, and Osha to name a few) buck the traditional depictions of the fantasy genre.

To Achieve Your Goals, Stick to a Strategy

Once the city of Meereen is conquered, availing Daenerys of its 93 ships, she wisely puts off her quest to retake the throne of Westeros by sailing to Kings Landing even though she now has the ships she’s so desperately needed throughout the past few seasons. The cities she has conquered have slipped back into disarray without her direct oversight, so she invests in her future empire by pausing to refortify her rule (an important gesture that demonstrates her loyalty to the subjects she has just freed).

The public relations analogy extends far and wide through the Game of Thrones series; the importance of communication and intellectual brinksmanship are felt more heavily in this fantasy series than in others which are content to coast on magic, mythical creatures and hewing swords. As a result, I’ve doubtless missed many other correlaries between GoT and the worlds of advertising, marketing and PR.

I’d love to hear what lessons or analogies you’ve picked up on in the series.

Valar morghulis.

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